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  • With Definitions

新渡戸(にとべ)稲造(いなぞう)(ひでよ)

   新渡戸(にとべ)稲造(いなぞう)という(ひと)をご(ぞん)じですか?

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  • 新渡戸(にとべ)稲造(いなぞう)という(ひと) a person named Nitobe Inazou [新渡戸(にとべ)稲造(いなぞう) (was a Japanese educator, diplomat, agronomist and political scientist (September 1, 1862 – October 15, 1933)); という (called; named); (ひと) (person; someone; somebody)]
  • を (indicates the direct object of action)
  • (ぞん)じ knowing; being aware (of) [ご is a polite/honorific/humble prefix]
  • です be; is
  • か (question marker)

2007(にせんなな)(ねん)まで発行(はっこう)されていた5000(ごせん)(えん)(さつ)肖像(しょうぞう)だった(ひと)なので、(かお)()っている(ひと)(おお)いと(おも)いますが、

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  • 2007(にせんなな)(ねん) year 2007
  • まで until (a time); till; to; up to
  • 発行(はっこう)されていた (it) was issued [~ていた form of 発行(はっこう)される (plain passive positive form of 発行(はっこう)する (to issue; to publish)) which is used to put emphasis on the duration of a past action; how to use: Verb て-form + いた]
  • 5000(ごせん)(えん)(さつ) 5,000 yen bill [(えん) (yen (Japanese monetary unit)); (さつ) (banknote; bill; note; paper money)]
  • の of (modifier)
  • 肖像(しょうぞう) portrait; likeness; picture
  • だった was [plain past form of です (be; is)]
  • なので so; that being the case; because of ...; the reason is ...; given that ... [な is used when following a noun and serves to link the noun (ひと) (person) with the particle の]
  • (かお)()っている(ひと) people who recognize (his) face [(かお) (face; visage); を (indicates the direct object of action); ()っている (recognize; ~ている form of ()る (to know; to be aware (of); to recognize) which is used to describe a continuing state or condition; how to use: Verb て-form + いる); (ひと) (person; people)]
  • は (indicates the sentence topic)
  • (おお)い many; numerous; a lot
  • (おも)います (I) think [と (is used for quoting thoughts); (おも)います (polite form of (おも)う (to think; to consider; to believe))]
  • が but; however

(なに)をした(ひと)なのかというと、意外(いがい)()らないのではないでしょうか?

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  • (なに)をした(ひと)なのか what did the person do [(なに) (what); を (indicates the direct object of action); した (did; plain past form of する (to do)); (ひと) (person); な (serves to link the noun (ひと) (person) with the particle の); のか (gives more emphasis on the wh-question part and is used when you would be requesting a clearer or more precise answer; か is used in pair with a question word in a question clause)]
  • というと (is used with interrogative words such as “what, when, why, which, how, etc.” to ask a question)
  • 意外(いがい)()らない surprisingly, it is not well known; it's not as well-known as you might think; surprisingly, it's not widely known; we think we know ~, but actually we don't [意外(いがい)と (unexpectedly; actually; an adverb that takes the particle と); ()らない (do not know; plain negative form of ()る (to know; to be aware (of)))]
  • のではないでしょうか I think ... isn't it?: It might be that..., don't you agree? [an expression for suggesting or doubting; is used when you want to express your opinion indirectly, in the form of a rhetorical question; this phrase can also be used when seeking agreement from the listener]
  新渡戸(にとべ)稲造(いなぞう)有名(ゆうめい)言葉(ことば)は、「(われ)太平洋(たいへいよう)(はし)とならん。」です。

)

)

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  • 新渡戸(にとべ)稲造(いなぞう)の Nitobe Inazou’s [新渡戸(にとべ)稲造(いなぞう) (Nitobe Inazou); の (‘s; indicates possessive)]
  • 有名(ゆうめい)言葉(ことば) famous words [有名(ゆうめい)な (famous); 言葉(ことば) (words; statement)]
  • 「」(quotation marks; “ ”)
  • (われ) I; me
  • 太平洋(たいへいよう)(はし)とならん (I) will be a bridge to the Pacific Ocean [太平洋(たいへいよう) (Pacific Ocean); の (of; to; modifier); (はし) (bridge); とならん (will become (shows intent); archaic volitional form of となる (to become); implies the will to accomplish the action: “I want to” or “I will”)]
  • です be; is 
その言葉(ことば)(とお)り、新渡戸(にとべ)稲造(いなぞう)は、日本(にほん)外国(がいこく)との交流(こうりゅう)相互(そうご)理解(りかい)のために(はたら)きました。

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  • その that; the
  • 言葉(ことば)(とお)り as (his) words; in accordance with (his) words [言葉(ことば) (words); の(とお)り (as ~; in the same way as; in the way; in accordance with; following; how to use: Noun + の + (とお)り)]
  • 日本(にほん)外国(がいこく)との交流(こうりゅう) exchange between Japan and foreign countries [日本(にほん) (Japan); と (and); 外国(がいこく) (foreign country); との (with; between); 交流(こうりゅう) (exchange (e.g. cultural); interchange; interaction; mingling)] 
  • 相互(そうご)理解(りかい)のために for mutual understanding [相互(そうご)理解(りかい) (mutual understanding; 相互(そうご) (mutual; reciprocal); 理解(りかい) (understanding; comprehension; appreciation)); のために (for; how to use: Noun + の + ために)]
  • (はたら)きました worked [polite past form of (はたら)く (to work; to labor; to labour)]

)

また、女子(じょし)教育(きょういく)にも尽力(じんりょく)し、日本(にほん)女子(じょし)大学(だいがく)初代(しょだい)学長(がくちょう)になっています。

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  • また also; too; as well
  • 女子(じょし)教育(きょういく)に to women's education [女子(じょし) (woman; girl); 教育(きょういく) (education; schooling; training; instruction; teaching); に (to)]
  • も too; also; as well
  • 尽力(じんりょく)し devoted (himself) ~ and; made efforts ~ and [ます-stem form of 尽力(じんりょく)する (to devote oneself; to exert oneself; to make efforts; to render a service) which is used to connect to the next phrase, creating the meaning of “and”]
  • 日本(にほん)女子(じょし)大学(だいがく)の of Japan Women's University [日本(にほん)女子(じょし)大学(だいがく) (Japan Women's University; 日本(にほん) (Japan); 女子(じょし) (woman; girl); 大学(だいがく) (university; college)); の (of; ‘s; modifier)]
  • 初代(しょだい)学長(がくちょう)になっています has become the first president [初代(しょだい) (first generation; founder); 学長(がくちょう) ((university) president; chancellor; principal); に (expresses the result of change); なっています (has become; ~ています form of なる (to become; to attain) which is used to describe a continuing state or condition; how to use: Verb て-form + います; ます-form is the polite form of Japanese verbs)]

 国際(こくさい)連盟(れんめい)事務(じむ)次長(じちょう)としても(はたら)きました。

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  • 国際(こくさい)連盟(れんめい)事務(じむ)次長(じちょう) Deputy Secretary General of the League of Nations [国際(こくさい)連盟(れんめい) (League of Nations; 国際(こくさい) (international); 連盟(れんめい) (league; federation; union; alliance)); の (of; modifier); 事務(じむ)次長(じちょう) (Deputy Secretary General)]
  • としても(はたら)きました also worked as [として (as (i.e. in the role of)); も (also); (はたら)きました (worked; polite past form of (はたら)く (to work; to labor))]

 (かれ)()いた有名(ゆうめい)(ほん)が「武士道(ぶしどう)」で、世界的(せかいてき)なベストセラーとなりました。

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  • (かれ)が he [(かれ) (he; him); が (marks the subject of the immediate verb phrase)]
  • ()いた wrote [plain past form of ()く (to write; to compose; to pen)]
  • 有名(ゆうめい)(ほん)が (his) famous book [有名(ゆうめい)な (famous); (ほん) (book; volume; script); が (expresses the subject of the predicate)]
  • 武士道(ぶしどう)」で “Bushido” [「武士道(ぶしどう)」(“Bushido”; way of the warrior; samurai code of chivalry; is a Japanese word for the way of the samurai life, loosely analogous to the concept of chivalry; 武士(ぶし) (samurai; warrior); (どう) (road; path; way)); で (for compound sentences; て-form of です (be; is) which is used to connect to the next phrase)]
  • 世界的(せかいてき)なベストセラーとなりました became an international bestseller [世界的(せかいてき)な (worldwide; global; international; universal); ベストセラー (bestseller); となりました (became (with finality); polite past form of となる (to become; implies having reached a final stage); how to use: Noun + となりました)]
この(ほん)(かれ)日本人(にほんじん)道徳観(どうとくかん)世界(せかい)紹介(しょうかい)しました。  

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  • この(ほん)で with this book [この (this); (ほん) (book); で (with; by; indicates the means of action)]
  • (かれ)は he [(かれ) (he; him); は (indicates the sentence topic)]
  • 日本人(にほんじん)道徳観(どうとくかん) moral values of the Japanese people [日本人(にほんじん) (Japanese people); の (of); 道徳観(どうとくかん) (moral values; moral framework; ideas on morals)]
  • を (indicates the direct object of action)
  • 世界(せかい)に to the world [世界(せかい) (the world; society; the universe); に (to)]
  • 紹介(しょうかい)しました introduced [polite past form of 紹介(しょうかい)する (to introduce; to present;  to showcase)]


今回(こんかい)は、この新渡戸(にとべ)稲造(いなぞう)人生(じんせい)紹介(しょうかい)してみたいと(おも)います。

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  • 今回(こんかい)は this time [今回(こんかい) (this time; now); は (adds emphasis)]
  • この this
  • 新渡戸(にとべ)稲造(いなぞう)人生(じんせい) life of Nitobe Inazou [新渡戸(にとべ)稲造(いなぞう) (Nitobe Inazou); の (of; ‘s); 人生(じんせい) ((one's) life)]
  • 紹介(しょうかい)してみたい (I) would like to try to introduce [~たい form of 紹介(しょうかい)してみる (try to introduce; ~てみる form of 紹介(しょうかい)する (to introduce; to present; used to express an exploratory nuance, as in “to try doing something” to find out more about it; how to use: Verb て-form + みる); ~たい means “want to do something”; how to use: Verb (ます-stem form) + たい]
  • (おも)います I think [と (is used for quoting thoughts); (おも)います (to think; polite form of (おも)う (to think; to consider; to believe))]

  新渡戸(にとべ)稲造(いなぞう)は、1862(せんはっぴゃくろくじゅうに)(ねん)岩手(いわて)(けん)盛岡(もりおか)()まれました。

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  • 1862(せんはっぴゃくろくじゅうに)(ねん) year 1862
  • 岩手(いわて)(けん)盛岡(もりおか)で in Morioka, Iwate Prefecture [岩手(いわて) (Iwate); (けん) (prefecture (Japan)); 盛岡(もりおか) (Morioka (city in Iwate)); で (in)]
  • ()まれました (he) was born [polite past form of ()まれる (to be born)]

 父(ちち)()くなったため、9(きゅう)(さい)(とき)(あに)たちとともに東京(とうきょう)叔父(おじ)のところへ()()しました。

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  • (ちち)()くなった (his) father died [(ちち) (father); が (marks the subject of the immediate verb phrase); ()くなった (died; plain past form of ()くなる (to die; to pass away))]
  • ため so; consequence; because of; as a result of ~; effect
  • 9(きゅう)(さい)(とき)に when (he) was 9 years old [9(きゅう)(さい) (9 years old; (さい) (... years old; age (of) ...)); の(とき) (when; how to use: Noun + の + (とき)); に (specifies time)]
  • (あに)たちとともに (he) and (his) older brothers; together with (his) older brothers [(あに)たち (older brothers; たち is a pluralizing suffix); とともに (together with; at the same time as; as well as ~; how to use: Noun + とともに)]
  • 東京(とうきょう) Tokyo
  • 叔父(おじ) uncle
  • ところ place; one's house
  • へ to
  • ()()しました moved [polite past form of ()()す (to move (house); to change residence)]
そのころは、あまり勉強(べんきょう)をせず、(なま)けてばかりいたため、家族(かぞく)からの信頼(しんらい)(うしな)っていました。  

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  • そのころは at that time [その (that; the); ころ ((approximate) time; around; about); は (adds emphasis)]
  • あまり (not) very; (not) much
  • 勉強(べんきょう)をせず (he) did not study; without studying [勉強(べんきょう) (study); を (indicates the direct object of action); せず (from する (to do); ~ず means “without doing ~”; how to use: Verb (ない-stem form) + ず; for the verb する: change to せず)]
  • (なま)けてばかりいた (he) was always lazy [from (なま)ける (to be lazy; to be idle; to slack); ~ばかりいた is the plain past form of ~ばかりいる (only; nothing but ~); how to use: Verb (て-form) + ばかりいた]
  • 家族(かぞく)からの信頼(しんらい)(うしな)っていました (he) lost the trust of his family [家族(かぞく) (family); から (from); の (‘s; of; descriptive limiting particle; modifier); 信頼(しんらい) (reliance; trust; faith; confidence); を (indicates the direct object of action); (うしな)っていました (lost; ~ていました form of (うしな)う (to lose) which is used to put emphasis on the duration of a past action; how to use: Verb て-form + いました)]
ある(とき)(あに)のために手袋(てぶくろ)()いましたが自分(じぶん)のお(かね)()ったのにもかかわらず、(ぬす)んだと(うたが)われてしまいます。

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  • ある(とき) one day; on one occasion; at some point in time [ある (a certain ...; some ...); (とき) (the day; time; the times; moment)]
  • (あに)のために for (his) brother [(あに) (brother; one's old brother; elder brother); のために (for; how to use: Noun + の + ために)]
  • 手袋(てぶくろ)を買いましたが (he) bought gloves but
  • 自分(じぶん)のお(かね)()った (he) bought (a pair of gloves) with (his) own money [手袋(てぶくろ) (glove; mitten; mitt); を (indicates the direct object of action); 自分(じぶん) (myself; yourself; oneself; himself; herself); の (‘s; indicates possessive); お(かね) (money); で (with; indicates means of action); ()った (bought; plain past form of ()う (to buy; to purchase))]
  • のにもかかわらず but; although [の (placeholder for nouns); にもかかわらず (but; although ~; despite; in spite of)]
  • (ぬす)んだと(うたが)われてしまいます (he) is suspected that (he) stole [(ぬす)んだ (stole; plain past form of (ぬす)む (to steal)); と (is used to phrase a clause); (うたが)われてしまいます (is suspected; from (うたが)われる (plain passive positive form of (うたが)う (to doubt; to distrust; to be suspicious of; to suspect)); ~てしまいます is the polite form of ~てしまう (refers to a regrettable event or negative meaning); how to use: Verb て-form + しまいます)]

(かれ)は、普段(ふだん)(おこな)いが(わる)いので、だれも自分(じぶん)(しん)じてくれないと反省(はんせい)し、それからは態度(たいど)一変(いっぺん)し、勉強(べんきょう)(はげ)むようになりました。

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  • (かれ)は he [(かれ) (he; him); は (indicates the sentence topic)]
  • 普段(ふだん)(おこな)いが(わる)い (his) usual behavior is bad [普段(ふだん) (usual; normal; habitual); の (of; modifier); (おこな)い (conduct; behavior; deed; act); が (expresses the subject of the predicate); (わる)い (bad; poor; undesirable)] 
  • ので because of ...; the reason is ...
  • だれも no one; nobody
  • 自分(じぶん) myself; yourself; oneself; himself; herself
  • (しん)じてくれない (they) don’t believe me [from (しん)じる (to believe; to place trust in); ~てくれない is the plain negative form of ~てくれる (to do a favor; to do something for someone; expresses something was done for you; how to use: Verb て-form + くれる)]
  • 反省(はんせい)し (he) felt sorry that ~ [と (is used for quoting thoughts); 反省(はんせい)し (ます-stem form of 反省(はんせい)する (to regret what one has done; to reflect on oneself; to reflect on one's past conduct) which is used to connect to the next phrase)]
  • それからは and then [それから (and then; since then; and); は (adds emphasis)]
  • 態度(たいど)一変(いっぺん)し (he) drastically changed (his) attitude and [態度(たいど) (attitude; manner; behaviour); を (indicates the direct object of action); 一変(いっぺん)し (drastically changed ~ and; ます-stem form of 一変(いっぺん)する (to drastically change; to do a full about-face) which is used to connect to the next phrase, creating the meaning of “and”)]
  • 勉強(べんきょう)(はげ)むようになりました began to study hard; started to work hard at one’s lessons [勉強(べんきょう) (study); に (at; to); (はげ)む (to work hard; to try hard; to strive; to devote oneself to); ようになりました (started to (as a habit); polite past form of ようになる (to come to the point that...; to start to...); how to use: Verb (dictionary form) + ようになりました)]

  1877(せんはっぴゃくななじゅうなな)(ねん)農業(のうぎょう)勉強(べんきょう)しようと、15(じゅうご)(さい)(とき)北海道(ほっかいどう)(のう)学校(がっこう)入学(にゅうがく)しました。

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  • 1877(せんはっぴゃくななじゅうなな)(ねん) year 1877
  • 農業(のうぎょう)勉強(べんきょう)しようと to study agriculture [農業(のうぎょう) (agriculture); を (indicates the direct object of action); 勉強(べんきょう)しよう (to study; plain volitional (is used when you talk about your intention or will) form of 勉強(べんきょう)する (to study)); と (is used for quoting thoughts)]
  • 15(じゅうご)(さい)(とき)に at the age of 15 [15(じゅうご)(さい) (age of 15; (さい) (... years old; age (of) ...)); の(とき) (when; at this time; how to use: Noun + の + (とき)); に (at; specifies time)]
  • 北海道(ほっかいどう)(のう)学校(がっこう)入学(にゅうがく)しました (he) entered Hokkaido Agricultural College [北海道(ほっかいどう)(のう)学校(がっこう) (Hokkaido Agricultural College; 北海道(ほっかいどう) (Hokkaidou (island prefecture in the north)); (のう) (farming; agriculture); 学校(がっこう) (school)); に (to; into); 入学(にゅうがく)しました (entered; polite past form of 入学(にゅうがく)する (to go to school; enter a school; get into a school))]
  •  そのころ、キリスト(きりすと)(きょう)感銘(かんめい)()けて洗礼(せんれい)をうけました。

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    • そのころ at that time; in those days; at that moment; then [その (that; the); ころ ((approximate) time; around)]
    • キリスト(きょう)に by Christianity [キリスト(きょう) (Christianity; キリスト (Christ); ~(きょう) (the faith)); に (by)]
    • 感銘(かんめい)()けて (he) was impressed (by Christianity) and [感銘(かんめい) (deep impression; being deeply moved; being deeply touched); を (indicates the direct object of action); ()けて (て-form of ()ける (to receive; to feel; to accept) which is used to connect to the next phrase, creating the meaning of “and”)]
    • 洗礼(せんれい)をうけました (he) was baptized [洗礼(せんれい) (baptism; christening); うけました (received; polite past form of うける (to receive; to feel; to accept))]

     北海道(ほっかいどう)(のう)学校(がっこう)には、「青年(せいねん)よ。大志(たいし)(いだ)け!」

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    • 北海道(ほっかいどう)(のう)学校(がっこう)には at Hokkaido Agricultural College [北海道(ほっかいどう)(のう)学校(がっこう) (Hokkaido Agricultural College); には (at; puts more emphasis and restriction on the preceding word)]
    • 青年(せいねん)よ。大志(たいし)(いだ)け!」“Young men, be ambitious!” [「」(quotation marks; “ ”); 青年(せいねん) (youth; young man); よ (sentence ender showing emphasis and certainty); 大志(たいし) (ambition; aspiration); (いだ)け (embrace; plain imperative positive form of (いだ)く (to embrace; to cherish (e.g. an ambition); to hold))]
    という言葉(ことば)有名(ゆうめい)なクラーク博士(はかせ)がいました。

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    • という that says; that [と (quotation marker; is used for quoting speech); いう (to say)]
    • 言葉(ことば)で with (his) words [言葉(ことば) (words; remark; statement); で (by; with)]
    • 有名(ゆうめい)なクラーク博士(はかせ) Dr. Clark who was famous ~ [有名(ゆうめい)な (famous); クラーク (Clark); 博士(はかせ) (doctor; PhD; Dr.; used as a suffix)]
    • (が)いました there was/were [polite past form of (が)いる (there is/are (living things); how to use: Noun + (が)いました)]


    新渡戸(にとべ)入学(にゅうがく)したときにはクラーク博士(はかせ)はアメリカに帰国(きこく)していて、直接(ちょくせつ)()うことはありませんでしたが、新渡戸(にとべ)(かれ)から(ふか)影響(えいきょう)()けました。

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    • 新渡戸(にとべ)が Nitobe [新渡戸(にとべ) (Nitobe); が (marks the subject of the immediate verb phrase)]
    • 入学(にゅうがく)したときには when (Nitobe) entered the school [入学(にゅうがく)した (entered the school; plain past form of 入学(にゅうがく)する (enter a school; enroll in school; get into a school)); とき (means “time” and can function like “when” in English to create a time clause); に (specifies time); は (adds emphasis)]
    • クラーク博士(はかせ)は Dr. Clark [クラーク博士(はかせ) (Dr. Clark; William Smith Clark (July 31, 1826 – March 9, 1886) was an American professor of chemistry, botany, and zoology; a colonel during the American Civil War; and a leader in agricultural education.); は (indicates the sentence topic)]
    • アメリカに帰国(きこく)していて returned to the United States [アメリカ (United States of America; United States; US; USA); に (to); 帰国(きこく)していて (returned; て-form of 帰国(きこく)している (~ている form of 帰国(きこく)する (to return to one's home country) which is used to describe a continuing state or condition; how to use: Verb て-form + いる) which is used to connect to the next phrase)] 
    • 直接(ちょくせつ)()うことはありませんでした never met (him) in person [直接(ちょくせつ) (direct; immediate; personal; firsthand); ()う (to meet; to encounter; to see); ことはありませんでした (something never happened; polite past form of ことはない ((something) never happens; there is no possibility that ~; how to use: Verb (dictionary form) + ことはない))]
    • が although; but; however
    • (かれ)から by him [(かれ) (he; him); から (by; from)]
    • (ふか)く deeply; intimately; heartily; sincerely; profoundly [adverbial form of (ふか)い (deep; profound); how to form: drop the ending い of い-adjectives (exception: いい (good) → よく) then replace it with く]
    • 影響(えいきょう)()けました (he) was (deeply) influenced [影響(えいきょう) (influence; effect; impact); ()けました (received; polite past form of ()ける (to receive; to feel; to accept))]

    その()新渡戸(にとべ)はアメリカに留学(りゅうがく)します。

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    • その() later; after that; afterwards; thereafter [その (that; the); () (after)]
    • アメリカに to the U.S. [アメリカ (America; United States; U.S.); に (to)]
    • 留学(りゅうがく)します to go abroad for study; to go on an overseas study program [ます-form is the polite form of Japanese verbs]
    クエーカーのキリスト教徒(きょうと)たちの(あつ)まりで出会(であ)った女性(じょせい)、メアリーと結婚(けっこん)しました。

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    • クエーカーのキリスト教徒(きょうと)たちの(あつ)まりで at a Quaker Christian gathering [クエーカー (Quaker; Society of Friends); の (of; modifier); キリスト (Christ); 教徒(きょうと)たち (believers; たち is a pluralizing suffix); (あつ)まり (gathering; meeting; assembly); で (at)]
    • 出会(であ)った女性(じょせい) a woman (he) met [出会(であ)った (met; plain past form of 出会(であ)う (to meet (by chance); to come across)); 女性(じょせい) (woman; female)] 
    • メアリーと結婚(けっこん)しました (he) married Mary [メアリー (Mary); と (with; to); 結婚(けっこん)しました (married; polite past form of 結婚(けっこん)する (to get married; to enter into a marriage; to marry))] 
    さらに、ドイツにも留学(りゅうがく)したのですが、そのとき、大学(だいがく)教授(きょうじゅ)から「日本人(にほんじん)は、宗教(しゅうきょう)教育(きょういく)をしないのに、どうやって善悪(ぜんあく)(まな)ぶのか?」という質問(しつもん)()けました。

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    • さらに furthermore; again; after all; moreover
    • ドイツにも in Germany [ドイツ (Germany); に (in); も (emphasizes the preceding word)]
    • 留学(りゅうがく)した went abroad for study [plain past form of 留学(りゅうがく)する (to go abroad for study; to go on an overseas study program)]
    • のですが but [のです (to explain something; to show emphasis); が (but; a conjunction which is used to combine two sentences together into one compound sentence)]
    • そのとき at that time; back then; at that moment [その (that; the); とき (time; moment)] 
    • 大学(だいがく)教授(きょうじゅ)から by a university professor [大学(だいがく) (university; college); の (of; possessive or descriptive particle); 教授(きょうじゅ) (professor); から (by; from)]
    • 「」(quotation marks; “ ”)
    • 日本人(にほんじん)は Japanese people [日本人(にほんじん) (Japanese person/people); は (topic marker)]
    • 宗教(しゅうきょう)教育(きょういく)をしないのに even though (they) don't provide religious education [宗教(しゅうきょう) (religion; belief; faith); 教育(きょういく) (education; schooling; training; instruction; teaching); しない (don’t; plain negative form of する (to do)); のに (although; despite; even though; and yet)]
    • どうやって how; in what way; by what means
    • 善悪(ぜんあく)(まな)ぶのか? (how can they) learn about good and evil? [善悪(ぜんあく) (right and wrong; good and evil); (まな)ぶ (to learn; to study; to take lessons in); のか (gives more emphasis on the wh-question part and is used when requesting a clearer or more precise answer from the other person)]
    • という that; that says [と (quotation marker); いう (to say)]
    • 質問(しつもん)()けました (he) was asked (by a university professor) [質問(しつもん) (question; inquiry; enquiry); ()けました (received; polite past form of ()ける (to receive; to feel; to accept))]
     新渡戸(にとべ)はそのときにはっきりと(こた)えることができませんでした。

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    • そのときに at that moment [その (that; the); とき (time; hour; moment; occasion); に (at)]
    • はっきりと in a direct manner; loud and clear; with bright clarity [と is used with an onomatopoeic word はっきり (clearly; plainly; distinctly)]  
    • (こた)えることができませんでした (he) could not answer; (he) was not able to answer [(こた)える (to answer; to reply); ことができませんでした (could not; polite negative past form of ことができる (can; able to; how to use: Verb (dictionary form) + ことができる))]
    そして、日本人(にほんじん)道徳(どうとく)(かん)武士道(ぶしどう)にあると(こた)えを()したのです。

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    • そして and; and then; thus
    • 日本人(にほんじん)道徳(どうとく)(かん) the Japanese people's moral framework [日本人(にほんじん) (Japanese people); の (‘s; of; indicates possessive); 道徳(どうとく)(かん) (moral framework; ideas on morals; moral outlook)]
    • 武士道(ぶしどう)にある lies in Bushido [武士道(ぶしどう) (Bushido); に (in; indicates a location); ある (to be; to exist)]
    • と (is used for quoting speech)
    • (こた)えを()した (he) answered; provided an answer; gave an answer [(こた)え (answer; reply; response); ()した (gave; plain past form of ()す (to give off; to put out))]
    • のです (to explain something; to show emphasis)
    それを(ほん)にしたのが、1900(せんきゅうひゃく)(ねん)発表(はっぴょう)された「武士道(ぶしどう)」です。

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    • それを(ほん)にしたのが made it into a book [それ (that; it); (ほん) (book; volume; script); にした (made something into; plain past form of にする (to make something into); how to use: Noun + にする); の (placeholder for nouns); が (marks the subject of the immediate verb phrase)]
    • 1900(せんきゅうひゃく)(ねん)に in year 1900 [(ねん) (year); に (in; specifies time)]
    • 発表(はっぴょう)された (it) was published [plain passive positive past form of 発表(はっぴょう)する (to publish; to release; to go public)]
    • 武士道(ぶしどう)」 “Bushido” [samurai code of chivalry]
    • です be; is
    武士道(ぶしどう)」を簡単(かんたん)にご紹介(しょうかい)しましょう。

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    • 簡単(かんたん)にご紹介(しょうかい)しましょう let me briefly introduce [簡単(かんたん)に (briefly; に is added after 簡単(かんたん) (simple; easy; uncomplicated; brief) to turn it into an adverbial form); ご紹介(しょうかい)しましょう (let me introduce; polite volitional (talking about your intention or will) form of ご紹介(しょうかい)する (to introduce; to present; ご is a polite/humble/ honorific prefix))]

    新渡戸(にとべ)は、武士道(ぶしどう)には()(ゆう)(じん)(れい)(まこと)名誉(めいよ)忠義(ちゅうぎ)7(なな)つの(おし)えがあると()きました。

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    • 武士道(ぶしどう)には in Bushido [武士道(ぶしどう) (Bushido); には (in; puts more emphasis and restriction on the preceding word)]
    • () morality; righteousness; justice
    • (ゆう) bravery; courage; heroism
    • (じん) benevolence (especially as a virtue of Confucianism); consideration; compassion; humanity; charity
    • (れい) manners; etiquette; respect
    • (まこと) sincerity; honesty; faithfulness; good faith
    • 名誉(めいよ) honor; honour; credit; glory; fame; distinction
    • 忠義(ちゅうぎ) loyalty; devotion
    • 7(なな)つの(おし)え seven teachings [7(なな)つ (seven); の (of; modifier); (おし)え (teaching; instruction; teachings; precept; lesson; doctrine)]
    • (が)ある (it) has; there is/are (non-living things) [how to use: Noun + (が)ある]
    • ()きました wrote that ~ [と (is used to phrase a clause); ()きました (wrote; polite past form of ()く (to write; to compose; to pen))]

    この7(なな)つの(なか)で、新渡戸(にとべ)は、(とく)大事(だいじ)なものは、()(ゆう)であり、(まわ)りに(なが)されずに正義(せいぎ)(まも)勇気(ゆうき)()(もの)こそが、(しん)武士(ぶし)だと(しる)しました。

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    • この7(なな)つの(なか)で of these seven; among these seven [この (this; these); 7(なな)つ (seven); の(なか)で (in; among ~; how to use: Noun + の(なか)で)]
    • (とく)に particularly; especially; in particular; expressly [an adverb]
    • 大事(だいじ)なものは the important thing [大事(だいじ)な (important; valuable; precious); もの (thing; object; article; something); は (indicates the sentence topic)]
    • ()(ゆう)であり are justice and courage, and [() (morality; righteousness; justice); と (and); (ゆう) (bravery; courage; heroism); であり (are; ます-stem form of である (be; is/are; formal or literary term) which is used to connect to the next phrase, creating the meaning of “and”)]
    • (まわ)りに in the vicinity; around ~ [(まわ)り (surroundings; neighbourhood; vicinity; around); に (in)]
    • (なが)されずに without being influenced (by others) [from (なが)される (plain passive positive form of (なが)す (to carry away; to sweep away)); ~ずに means “without doing ~”; how to use: Verb ない (ない stem) + ずに] 
    • 正義(せいぎ)(まも)勇気(ゆうき) the courage to uphold justice [正義(せいぎ) (justice; right; righteousness); (まも)る (to uphold; to protect; to guard; to keep); 勇気(ゆうき) (courage; bravery; valor)]
    • ()(もの) the person who has [()つ (to possess; to have; to hold); (もの) (person)]
    • こそ for sure (emphasizes the preceding word); precisely; definitely ~ [how to use: Noun + こそ] 
    • が (marks the subject of the immediate verb phrase)
    • (しん)武士(ぶし) true samurai [(しん) (true; authentic); の (modifier); 武士(ぶし) (samurai; warrior)]
    • だ is [casual for です (be; is)]
    • (しる)しました wrote that ~ [と (is used to phrase a clause); (しる)しました (wrote; polite past form of (しる)す (to write; to note down))]
    また、武士(ぶし)究極(きゅうきょく)目標(もくひょう)は、忠義(ちゅうぎ)だとも()っています。

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    • また also; too; as well
    • 武士(ぶし)の of a samurai [武士(ぶし) (samurai; warrior); の (of)]
    • 究極(きゅうきょく)目標(もくひょう) ultimate goal [究極(きゅうきょく) (ultimate; final; last; eventual); の (modifier); 目標(もくひょう) (goal; target; aim; objective)]
    • は (indicates the sentence topic)
    • 忠義(ちゅうぎ)だと is loyalty [忠義(ちゅうぎ) (loyalty; devotion); だ (is; casual for です (be; is)); と (quoting particle, indicating that this is something said)]
    • も also; even [emphasizes the preceding word or phrase, suggesting that loyalty is not just a goal but a significant one]
    • ()っています saying; states [~ています form of ()う (to say) which is used to indicate an ongoing state; how to use: Verb て-form + います]
    忠義(ちゅうぎ)(まも)って名誉(めいよ)()ることが武士(ぶし)目指(めざ)すべき到達(とうたつ)地点(ちてん)なのです。

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    • 忠義(ちゅうぎ)(まも)って by upholding loyalty [忠義(ちゅうぎ) (loyalty; devotion); を (indicates the direct object of action); (まも)って (by upholding; て-form of (まも)る (to uphold; to protect; to guard) which is used to express a means for a subsequent action or event)]
    • 名誉(めいよ)()るto gain honor [名誉(めいよ) (honor; honour; credit; glory; fame); ()る (to get; to earn; to acquire; to gain)]
    • こと (nominalizer; turns the preceding phrase into a noun phrase)
    • が (marks the subject of the immediate verb phrase)
    • 武士(ぶし)目指(めざ)すべき a samurai should strive for [武士(ぶし) (samurai; warrior); の (of; modifier); 目指(めざ)す (to aim at; to strive for); べき (should; must; how to use: Verb (dictionary form) + べき)]
    • 到達(とうたつ)地点(ちてん)なのです is the attainment [到達(とうたつ) (attainment; reaching; attaining); 地点(ちてん) (viewpoint; mark; spot); な (serves to link the noun 到達(とうたつ)地点(ちてん) (attainment) with the particle の); のです (explanatory ender; shows emphasis)]

    現代(げんだい)日本人(にほんじん)(わす)れてしまっている武士道(ぶしどう)ですが、

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    • 現代(げんだい)日本人(にほんじん) modern Japanese [現代(げんだい) (modern age; present day; today); の (modifier); 日本人(にほんじん) (Japanese people)]
    • (わす)れてしまっている (Bushido) has been forgotten [~ている form of (わす)れてしまう (from (わす)れる (to forget; to leave carelessly; to forget about); ~てしまう (refers to a regrettable event or negative meaning; how to form: Verb て-form + しまう)) which is used to describe a continuing state or condition; how to use: Verb て-form + いる]
    • です be; is
    • が but; however

    (いま)こそもう一度(いちど)(おも)()すべきものなのかもしれません。新渡戸(にとべ)によって英語(えいご)()かれた「武士道(ぶしどう)」はベストセラーとなり、ドイツ()やポーランド()にも(やく)されました。

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    • (いま)こそ now [(いま) (now; the present time); こそ (for sure (emphasizes the preceding word); how to use: Noun + こそ)]
    • もう一度(いちど) once again; once more; all over again; one more time
    • (おも)()すべき must remember [(おも)()す (to recall; to remember; to recollect); べき (should; must)]
    • ものなのかもしれません perhaps; might be [もの (material thing; placeholder for nouns); な (serves to link もの with the particle の); の (explanatory particle; indicating emphasis); かもしれません (may; might; perhaps; may be; possibly)]
    • 新渡戸(にとべ)によって by Nitobe [新渡戸(にとべ) (Nitobe); によって (by; by means of, according to; how to use: Noun + によって)]
    • 英語(えいご)で in English [英語(えいご) (English); で (in)]
    • ()かれた written [plain passive positive past form of ()く (to write; to compose; to pen)]
    • 武士道(ぶしどう)」は “Bushido” [「武士道(ぶしどう)」(“Bushido”); は (indicates the sentence topic)]
    • ベストセラーとなり became a bestseller and [ベストセラー (bestseller); となり (became ~ and; ます-stem form of となる (become (with finality); implies 'finality' or 'uniqueness' in the change; how to use: Noun + となる) which is used to connect to the next phrase, creating the meaning of “and”)] 
    • ドイツ()やポーランド()にも(やく)されました translated into German and Polish [ドイツ() (German language); や (and); ポーランド() (Polish (language)); に (into); も (also; emphasizes the preceding word); (やく)されました (translated; polite passive positive past form of (やく)す (to translate; to interpret))]
    この(ほん)功績(こうせき)により、高名(こうめい)となった新渡戸(にとべ)国際(こくさい)連盟(れんめい)事務(じむ)次長(じちょう)(えら)ばれました。

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    • この(ほん)の of this book [この (this); (ほん) (book); の (of; modifier)]
    • 功績(こうせき)により in recognition of (somebody's) services; by means of the accomplishment [功績(こうせき) (accomplishment; merit; distinguished service; achievement; contribution); により (by (means of); through; how to use: Noun + により)]
    • 高名(こうめい)となった became famous [高名(こうめい) (famous; well-known; renowned; distinguished); となった (became; plain past form of となる (become (with finality)))]
    • 国際(こくさい)連盟(れんめい)事務(じむ)次長(じちょう)に as the Deputy Secretary General of the League of Nations [国際(こくさい)連盟(れんめい) (League of Nations); の (of); 事務(じむ)次長(じちょう) (Deputy Secretary General; under secretary-general); に (as)]
    • (えら)ばれました (he) was chosen [polite passive positive past form of (えら)ぶ (to choose; to select)]

    このころ、日本(にほん)軍国(ぐんこく)主義(しゅぎ)傾倒(けいとう)し、国際(こくさい)社会(しゃかい)から孤立(こりつ)(はじ)めていました。

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    • このころ at the time; in those days; then [この (this); ころ ((approximate) time; around)]
    • 日本(にほん)は Japan [日本(にほん) (Japan); は (indicates the sentence topic)]
    • 軍国(ぐんこく)主義(しゅぎ) militarism [軍国(ぐんこく)主義(しゅぎ) (militarism; 軍国(ぐんこく) (nation at war; militant nation); 主義(しゅぎ) (doctrine; rule; principle; -ism))]
    • 傾倒(けいとう)し lean toward (militarism) and; immerse oneself in ~ and [に (towards; in; into; to); 傾倒(けいとう)し (ます-stem form of 傾倒(けいとう)する (be committed to; to immerse oneself) which is used to connect to the next phrase, creating the meaning of “and”)]
    • 国際(こくさい)社会(しゃかい)から from the international community [国際(こくさい)社会(しゃかい) (international community; international society; 国際(こくさい) (international); 社会(しゃかい) (society; public; community; the world)); から (from)]
    • 孤立(こりつ)(はじ)めていました had begun to isolate [~ていました form of 孤立(こりつ)(はじ)める (to begin to isolate oneself; from 孤立(こりつ)する (to isolate oneself; to alienate oneself); ~(はじ)める means “to begin to ~; to start”; how to use: Verb (ます-stem form) + (はじ)める) which is used to put emphasis on the duration of a past action; how to use: Verb て-form + いました]

    新渡戸(にとべ)必死(ひっし)日本(にほん)立場(たちば)理解(りかい)してもらおうと(はたら)きましたが、(かれ)努力(どりょく)もむなしく、1933(せんきゅうひゃくさんじゅうさん)(ねん)日本(にほん)国際(こくさい)連盟(れんめい)から脱退(だったい)しました。

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    • 新渡戸(にとべ)は Nitobe [新渡戸(にとべ) (Nitobe); は (indicates the sentence topic)]
    • 必死(ひっし)に desperately; frantically [に is added after 必死(ひっし) (frantic; frenetic; desperate) to turn it into an adverbial form]
    • 日本(にほん)立場(たちば)理解(りかい)してもらおうと(はたら)きました worked (desperately) to have Japan's position understood [日本(にほん) (Japan); の (‘s; indicates possessive); 立場(たちば) (position; situation); を (indicates the direct object of action); 理解(りかい)してもらおう (to have (Japan's position) understood; plain volitional (is used when you talk about your intention or will) form of 理解(りかい)してもらう (from 理解(りかい)する (to understand; to get the idea); ~てもらう means “to get someone to do; to have someone do”; how to use: Verb て-form + もらう)); と (is used to phrase a clause); (はたら)きました (worked; polite past form of (はたら)く (to work; to labor))]  
    • が but; however
    • (かれ)努力(どりょく)もむなしく his efforts were in vain [(かれ) (he; him); の (‘s; indicates possessive); 努力(どりょく) (effort; exertion; endeavour; hard work); も (emphasizes the preceding word); むなしく (in vain; to no purpose; fruitlessly)]
    • 1933(せんきゅうひゃくさんじゅうさん)(ねん) year 1933
    • 国際(こくさい)連盟(れんめい)から from the League of Nations [国際(こくさい)連盟(れんめい) (League of Nations); から (from)]
    • 脱退(だったい)しました withdrew [polite past form of 脱退(だったい)する (to withdraw; to secede)]

    その()新渡戸(にとべ)もカナダのビクトリアで国際(こくさい)会議(かいぎ)出席(しゅっせき)()()くなりました。

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    • その() later; after that; afterwards; thereafter
    • 新渡戸(にとべ)も Nitobe [も (emphasizes the preceding word)]
    • カナダのビクトリアで in Victoria, Canada [カナダ (Canada); の (of; modifier); ビクトリア (Victoria); で (in; indicates the location of action)]
    • 国際(こくさい)会議(かいぎ)出席(しゅっせき)() after attending an international conference [国際(こくさい) (international); 会議(かいぎ) (meeting; conference; session; assembly; council; convention; congress); に (to; at); 出席(しゅっせき) (attendance; presence; appearance); () (after)]
    • ()くなりました died [polite past form of ()くなる (to die; to pass away)]
    最後(さいご)まで、日本(にほん)世界(せかい)平和(へいわ)尽力(じんりょく)した新渡戸(にとべ)稲造(いなぞう)は、(きゅう)5000(ごせん)(えん)(さつ)肖像(しょうぞう)にふさわしい人物(じんぶつ)だと()えるでしょう。

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    • 最後(さいご)まで until the end [最後(さいご) (end; last; final); まで (until (a time); till; to; up to)]
    • 日本(にほん)世界(せかい)の of Japan and the world [日本(にほん) (Japan); と (and); 世界(せかい) (the world; society; the universe); の (of)]
    • 平和(へいわ)に to the peace [平和(へいわ) (peace; harmony); に (to)]
    • 尽力(じんりょく)した devoted (himself) [plain past form of 尽力(じんりょく)する (to devote; to exert oneself; to render a service)]
    • (きゅう)5000(ごせん)(えん)(さつ)肖像(しょうぞう)に for the portrait of the old 5,000-yen bill [(きゅう) (old; former; ex-; a prefix); 5000(ごせん)(えん)(さつ) (5,000-yen bill); の (of; modifier); 肖像(しょうぞう) (portrait; likeness; picture); に (for; to)]
    • ふさわしい appropriate; suitable; fitting; worthy
    • 人物(じんぶつ) person; character; figure; man; woman
    • だ was; were [plain past form of です (be; is)]
    • ()えるでしょう I believe (it) can be said that ~ [と (is used for quoting thoughts, speech, etc.); ()える (can say; plain potential positive form of ()う (to say)); でしょう (it seems; I think; I believe; indicates that the speakers assert their speculation based on their interpretation of something)]


    (わたし)たちは新渡戸(にとべ)(おな)じように日本(にほん)世界(せかい)平和(へいわ)(まも)っていかなければならないと(おも)います。

    Click for Vocabulary

    • (わたし)たちは we [(わたし)たち (we; たち is a pluralizing suffix); は (indicates the sentence topic)]
    • 新渡戸(にとべ)と with Nitobe [新渡戸(にとべ) (Nitobe); と (with)]
    • (おな)じように in the same way [(おな)じ (same; identical; similar); ように (in the manner of; similar to; just like; as)]
    • 日本(にほん)世界(せかい)平和(へいわ) peace in Japan and the world [日本(にほん) (Japan); と (and); 世界(せかい) (the world; society; the universe); の (in; of; modifier); 平和(へいわ) (peace; harmony)]
    • を (indicates the direct object of action)
    • (まも)っていかなければならない must protect [from (まも)っていく ((まも)って (て-form of (まも)る (to protect; to guard; to defend) which is used to connect to the next verb いく); いく (to move (towards); to go); ~ていく (is used when you describe something (physically or mentally) that is going away from where you are; how to use: Verb て-form + いく)); ~なければならない means “must do something; have to do something”; how to use: Verb (ない form; plain negative) な + ければならない]  
    • (おも)います (I) believe that ~ [と (used for quoting thoughts); (おも)います (to think; to consider; to believe; ます-form is the polite form of Japanese verbs)]


    In Japanese

    新渡戸(にとべ)稲造(いなぞう)

    新渡戸(にとべ)稲造(いなぞう)という(ひと)をご(ぞん)じですか?2007(にせんなな)(ねん)まで発行(はっこう)されていた5000(ごせん)(えん)(さつ)肖像(しょうぞう)だった(ひと)なので、(かお)()っている(ひと)(おお)いと(おも)いますが、(なに)をした(ひと)なのかというと、意外(いがい)()らないのではないでしょうか?新渡戸(にとべ)稲造(いなぞう)有名(ゆうめい)言葉(ことば)は、「(われ)太平洋(たいへいよう)(はし)とならん。」です。

    その言葉(ことば)(とお)り、新渡戸(にとべ)稲造(いなぞう)は、日本(にほん)外国(がいこく)との交流(こうりゅう)相互(そうご)理解(りかい)のために(はたら)きました。また、女子(じょし)教育(きょういく)にも尽力(じんりょく)し、日本(にほん)女子(じょし)大学(だいがく)初代(しょだい)学長(がくちょう)になっています。国際(こくさい)連盟(れんめい)事務(じむ)次長(じちょう)としても(はたら)きました。(かれ)()いた有名(ゆうめい)(ほん)が「武士道(ぶしどう)」で、世界的(せかいてき)なベストセラーとなりました。この(ほん)(かれ)日本人(にほんじん)道徳観(どうとくかん)世界(せかい)紹介(しょうかい)しました。今回(こんかい)は、この新渡戸(にとべ)稲造(いなぞう)人生(じんせい)をご紹介(しょうかい)してみたいと(おも)います。

    新渡戸(にとべ)稲造(いなぞう)は、1862(せんはっぴゃくろくじゅうに)(ねん)岩手(いわて)(けん)盛岡(もりおか)()まれました。(ちち)()くなったため、9(きゅう)(さい)(とき)(あに)たちとともに東京(とうきょう)叔父(おじ)のところへ()()しました。そのころは、あまり勉強(べんきょう)をせず、(なま)けてばかりいたため、家族(かぞく)からの信頼(しんらい)(うしな)っていました。ある(とき)(あに)のために手袋(てぶくろ)()いましたが、自分(じぶん)のお(かね)()ったのにもかかわらず、(ぬす)んだと(うたが)われてしまいます。(かれ)は、普段(ふだん)(おこな)いが(わる)いので、だれも自分(じぶん)(しん)じてくれないと反省(はんせい)し、それからは態度(たいど)一変(いっぺん)し、勉強(べんきょう)(はげ)むようになりました。

    1877(せんはっぴゃくななじゅうなな)(ねん)農業(のうぎょう)勉強(べんきょう)しようと、15(じゅうご)(さい)(とき)北海道(ほっかいどう)(のう)学校(がっこう)入学(にゅうがく)しました。そのころ、キリスト(きょう)感銘(かんめい)()けて洗礼(せんれい)をうけました。北海道(ほっかいどう)(のう)学校(がっこう)には、「青年(せいねん)よ。大志(たいし)(いだ)け!」という言葉(ことば)有名(ゆうめい)なクラーク博士(はかせ)がいました。新渡戸(にとべ)入学(にゅうがく)したときにはクラーク博士(はかせ)はアメリカに帰国(きこく)していて、直接(ちょくせつ)()うことはありませんでしたが、新渡戸(にとべ)(かれ)から(ふか)影響(えいきょう)()けました。その()新渡戸(にとべ)はアメリカに留学(りゅうがく)します。クエーカーのキリスト教徒(きょうと)たちの(あつ)まりで出会(であ)った女性(じょせい)、メアリーと結婚(けっこん)しました。

    さらに、ドイツにも留学(りゅうがく)したのですが、そのとき、大学(だいがく)教授(きょうじゅ)から「日本人(にほんじん)は、宗教(しゅうきょう)教育(きょういく)をしないのに、どうやって善悪(ぜんあく)(まな)ぶのか?」という質問(しつもん)()けました。新渡戸(にとべ)はそのときにはっきりと(こた)えることができませんでした。

    そして、日本人(にほんじん)道徳(どうとく)(かん)武士道(ぶしどう)にあると(こた)えを()したのです。それを(ほん)にしたのが、1900(せんきゅうひゃく)(ねん)発表(はっぴょう)された「武士道(ぶしどう)」です。「武士道(ぶしどう)」を簡単(かんたん)にご紹介(しょうかい)しましょう。

    新渡戸(にとべ)は、武士道(ぶしどう)には()(ゆう)(じん)(れい)(まこと)名誉(めいよ)忠義(ちゅうぎ)7(なな)つの(おし)えがあると()きました。この7(なな)つの(なか)で、新渡戸(にとべ)は、(とく)大事(だいじ)なものは、()(ゆう)であり、(まわ)りに(なが)されずに正義(せいぎ)(まも)勇気(ゆうき)()(もの)こそが、(しん)武士(ぶし)だと(しる)しました。また、武士(ぶし)究極(きゅうきょく)目標(もくひょう)は、忠義(ちゅうぎ)だとも()っています。忠義(ちゅうぎ)(まも)って名誉(めいよ)()ることが武士(ぶし)目指(めざ)すべき到達(とうたつ)地点(ちてん)なのです。現代(げんだい)日本人(にほんじん)(わす)れてしまっている武士道(ぶしどう)ですが、(いま)こそもう一度(いちど)(おも)()すべきものなのかもしれません。

    新渡戸(にとべ)によって英語(えいご)()かれた「武士道(ぶしどう)」はベストセラーとなり、ドイツ()やポーランド()にも(やく)されました。この(ほん)功績(こうせき)により、高名(こうめい)となった新渡戸(にとべ)国際(こくさい)連盟(れんめい)事務(じむ)次長(じちょう)(えら)ばれました。このころ、日本(にほん)軍国(ぐんこく)主義(しゅぎ)傾倒(けいとう)し、国際(こくさい)社会(しゃかい)から孤立(こりつ)(はじ)めていました。

    新渡戸(にとべ)必死(ひっし)日本(にほん)立場(たちば)理解(りかい)してもらおうと(はたら)きましたが、(かれ)努力(どりょく)もむなしく、1933(せんきゅうひゃくさんじゅうさん)(ねん)日本(にほん)国際(こくさい)連盟(れんめい)から脱退(だったい)しました。その()新渡戸(にとべ)もカナダのビクトリアで国際(こくさい)会議(かいぎ)出席(しゅっせき)()()くなりました。最後(さいご)まで、日本(にほん)世界(せかい)平和(へいわ)尽力(じんりょく)した新渡戸(にとべ)稲造(いなぞう)は、(きゅう)5000(ごせん)(えん)(さつ)肖像(しょうぞう)にふさわしい人物(じんぶつ)だと()えるでしょう。

    (わたし)たちは新渡戸(にとべ)(おな)じように日本(にほん)世界(せかい)平和(へいわ)(まも)っていかなければならないと(おも)います。


    In English

    Nitobe Inazou

    Please try to tackle the Japanese first and use this only as needed.

    Do you know a person named Nitobe Inazou, whose portrait was on the 5,000 yen bill issued until 2007? So many people may recognize his face. However, you might not be aware of what he did. Nitobe Inazou is famous for saying, “I will be a bridge to the Pacific Ocean.”

    True to his word, Nitobe Inazou worked for exchange and mutual understanding between Japan and foreign countries. He also devoted himself to women's education and became the first president of Japan Women's University. He also worked as the Deputy Secretary General of the League of Nations. His famous book “Bushido” became an international bestseller. With this book, he introduced the moral values of the Japanese people to the world. This time, I would like to introduce the life of Nitobe Inazou.

    Nitobe Inazou was born in Morioka, Iwate Prefecture in 1862. After his father died, he and his older brothers moved to live with his uncle in Tokyo when he was 9 years old. At that time, he did not study much and was always lazy, so he lost the trust of his family. One day, he bought a pair of gloves for his brother with his own money, but was suspected of stealing them. He felt sorry that no one would believe him because of his usual bad behavior, so he drastically changed his attitude and began to study hard.

    In 1877, at the age of 15, he entered Hokkaido Agricultural College to study agriculture. At that time, he was impressed by Christianity and was baptized. At Hokkaido Agricultural College, there was Dr. Clark who was famous for saying, “Young men, be ambitious!” When Nitobe entered the school, Dr. Clark had already returned to the United States but Nitobe was deeply influenced by him, although they never met in person. Later, Nitobe went to the U.S. to study. He married Mary, a woman he met at a Quaker Christian gathering.

    Furthermore, he studied in Germany, where he was asked by a university professor, “How can the Japanese learn about good and evil when they don't provide religious education?” Nitobe could not give a clear answer at that moment.

    And he answered that the Japanese people's moral framework lies in Bushido. The book “Bushido” was published in 1900. Let me briefly introduce “Bushido”.

    Nitobe wrote that Bushido has seven teachings: justice, courage, compassion, respect, honesty, honor, and loyalty. Of these seven, Nitobe wrote that the most important are justice and courage, and that a true samurai is the one who has the courage to uphold justice without being influenced by others. He also says that the ultimate goal of a samurai is loyalty. To gain honor by upholding loyalty is the attainment that a samurai should strive for. Bushido has been forgotten by modern Japanese, but perhaps now is the time to remember it once again.

    “Bushido”, written by Nitobe in English, became a bestseller and was translated into German and Polish. It can be said that Nitobe's book made him so famous that he was chosen as the Deputy Secretary General of the League of Nations. At the time, Japan was becoming increasingly militaristic and isolated from the international community.

    Nitobe worked desperately to have Japan's position understood, but his efforts were in vain, and in 1933, Japan withdrew from the League of Nations. Later, Nitobe also died after attending an international conference in Victoria, Canada. Nitobe Inazou, who devoted himself to the peace of Japan and the world until the end of his life, was a fitting portrait for the old 5,000-yen bill.

    I believe that we must protect peace in Japan and the world in the same way that Nitobe did.

  • Clay about a year ago I asked you for more historical articles. You have delivered loads and I am on the edge of my seat reading these.
    とても面白いな人たちたくさんいます
    ありがとうございました!

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